Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 2

Embedded booklet with full instructions for the theme to the right.Dystopia in literature


Huxley’s A Brave New World is a third well known dystopian novel, together with Fahrenheit 451 and 1984, which in many way is topical in today’s society.

See posts,

Aldous Huxley and ”A Brave New World”

A Brave New World

Read  Chapter 1 from Huxley’s A Brave New World

Discuss:
Analyse and interpret the text. Tie you discussion to the text using examples and quotes.

(The questions below are quoted from the textbook Viewpoints 3 p. 174)

  1. In the text it is suggested that it is better for individuals to focus on particulars rather than generalities. What is meant by this, and how do you think this could be seen to benefit society?
  2. What do you think is meant by the term ‘social stability’ in the text?
  3. The novel Brave New World depicts a society which has been influenced by Henry Ford and his mass production model for car manufacturing. There are countless references to this throughout the novel, such as the use of the expression ‘My Ford’ instead of ‘My Lord’. find other examples of the influence of Ford and his model in this extract.
  4. What is being manufactured in the factory? How is the idea of ‘mass production’ being put into action with this product?
  5. Even though Brave New World was written as a reaction to society in 1932, many argue that the novel is still relevant today. Do you agree? Why/ why not?
  6. One important aspect of society in Brave New World is happiness. As long as citizens are happy, society can be kept stable. It is therefore argued that happiness is more important than truth. What is your opinion on this?
  7. The novel also tackles the age-old question of ‘nature versus nurture’. Research this question an describe how it fits with the text.
  8. What is your stance on nature versus nurture? Explain your view.

Reference: Gustafsson, L. & Wivast, U. (2014). Viewpoints. 3.  Malmö: Gleerup.

Record your discussion or take notes and hand in.

Part 1: while reading Farenheit 451

Then continue reading Fahrenheit 451  using the reading instructions.

 


Posts on this theme

Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 1
Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 3
Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 4

Dystopia in literature
Ray Bradbury and Fahrenheit 451
Aldous Huxley and ”A Brave New World”
A Brave New World
George Orwell
George Orwell’s 1984
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Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 1

Dystopia in literature”It’s not so much staying alive, as staying human, that is important” (Winston, in the film 1984)

Dystopia in Literature is a themed work, for English 7,  based on Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury)  & 1984 (George Orwell).

(See embedded booklet with full instructions for the theme to the right)


We start with the concept of dystopia “an imaginary place where people lead dehumanized and often fearful lives” (Merriam Webster), and introduce the book Farenheit 451.

See the posts,

Dystopia in literature

Ray Bradbury and Fahrenheit 451


Part 1: while reading Farenheit 451When reading the book Farenheit 451 be  careful to follow the reading instructions.

(See embedded instruction to the right, or the full booklet)


For both the of the titles Farenehit 451 and 1984 think about

1) How truth is handled,

2) How literature is regarded and dealt with,

3) How war is described and the functions of war,

4) Hope, if there is hope and in what form and finally

5) In the end, who wins and why?

Taking notes while you read and watch is highly recommended.


Posts on this theme

Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 2
Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 3
Dystopia in Literature – Lesson 4

Dystopia in literature
Ray Bradbury and Fahrenheit 451
Aldous Huxley and ”A Brave New World”
A Brave New World
George Orwell
George Orwell’s 1984

English and CEFR

The National Curriculum and teaching of English in the Swedish school system is adapted to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). In Swedish it is referred to as Gemensam Europeisk referensram för språk (GERS). It can be discerned in the curriculum for English in Swedish grundskola and in Curriculum for the upper secondary school.

Swedish version / version suédoise : Gemensam europeisk referensram för språk : lärande, undervisningoch bedömning, Skolverket, 2007, ISBN : 978-91-85545-50-6, www.skolverket.se.

In Common European Framework of Reference for Languages ger Europarådet en översikt över språkfärdigheter i de sex nivåerna A1 – C2. Denna globala skala kan användas framför allt för att informera t.ex. föräldrar, beslutsfattare eller representanter för näringslivet (Den globala skalan).

Skolverket “Om ämnet Engelska” (p. 2)

The CEFR organises language proficiency in six levels, A1 to C2, which can be regrouped into three broad levels: Basic User, Independent User and Proficient User, and that can be further subdivided according to the needs of the local context. The levels are defined through ‘can-do’ descriptors. The levels did not suddenly appear from nowhere in 2001, but were a development over a period of time, as described below (from CEFR levels described).

These levels are described and delimited, as in Qualitative aspects of spoken language use.  The Swedish National Agency for Education clarifies how the European framework and national curricula are aligned in the dokument “Om ämnet Engelska“, where there is very clear figure (see above) illustrating the levels and alignment. Wikipedia has a clear description of the levels as well.

The education systems in the European Union are autonomous, but for languages there is the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, which comes into effect as well. in Swedish this becomes evident in the curricula but also in the construction of National Tests; see Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). A Manual.

Literary devices

When working with literature and text it is useful to learn and know terms for literary devices. “Literary devices and terms are the techniques and elements—from figures of speech to narrative devices to poetic meters—that writers use to create narrative literature, poetry, speeches, or any other form of writing” (from LitChart). You will be using these terms (and skills) in work with analysing texts.

LitChart has a list with definitions and a and with lots of examples. Another option is the site Literary Devices or  the page What are Literary Devices?, from Literary Devices  Definition and Examples of Literary Terms.


Useful sites for definitions and explanations:

Dystopia in Literature

Dystopia in literature

Farenheit 451 (Bradbury), 1984 (Orwell) and A Brave New World (Huxley) are three novels which are again, or still, topical. Ethical issues that contemporary society is struggling with, reproduction, genetic modification and cloning, the media, control and surveillance are all depicted in these three novels.

(Instruction for working with Dystopian literature to the right here.)

The review “Which Dystopian Novel Got It Right: Orwell’s ‘1984’ or Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’?”  refers to the US Presidential elections when

there were almost daily echoes of Orwell in the news, and “1984” began shooting up the Amazon best-seller list. The most obvious connection to Orwell was the new president’s repeated insistence that even his most pointless and transparent lies were in fact true, and then his adviser Kellyanne Conway’s explanation that these statements were not really falsehoods but, rather, “alternative facts.” As any reader of “1984” knows, this is exactly Big Brother’s standard of truth: The facts are whatever the leader says they are (New York Times, FEB. 13, 2017).

These book are examples of dystopian literature, but what is a dystopia, or utopia? Dystopia is defined as

a world in which everything is imperfect and everything goes terribly wrong. Dystopian literature shows us a nightmarish image about what might happen in the near future. Usually the main themes of dystopian works are rebellion, oppression, revolutions, wars, overpopulation and disasters. On the other hand, utopia is a perfect world exactly opposite to dystopia (Literary Devices)

The idea of society gone wrong seem to have its dark allure on us. It is a recurring theme in books and films. The classics titles Farenheit 451, 1984 (Orwell) and A Brave New World are all listed in ShortLists’s “The 20 best dystopian novels”, but there are other titles, just as well known, and very topical today, such as Margret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale , listed with Huxley’s A Brave New World in the Encyclopedia Britannica as “10 Devastating Dystopias“.


More posts on this theme

Ray Bradbury and Fahrenheit 451

Aldous Huxley and ”A Brave New World”

A Brave New World

George Orwell

George Orwell’s 1984

Text Structures

Working effectively with texts requires awareness of structures.


One way of working with awareness of text and structure is  SOAPSTone, looking at

​S: speaker – who?

O: occasion – when?

A: audience – receiver, intended langauge

P: purpose – why?

S: subject . what?

Tone – author’s attitude

Also see Text Structure Signal Words 


Poster fetched from https://www.nsbsd.org/Page/3561

The poster above is fetched from North Slope Borough School District, Alaska,  who in turn have gathered resources from  AK EED and Center on Instruction 


The Communication ProcessLangauge is communication.
When you work with language you are always, in one way or another, part of a process of communciation. That is what we use langauge for, to communicate. To the left here you have a short overview of the communication process, or watch it below.

Kunskapsuppdrag för grundskola respektive gymnasium

Skolverket (2011, 2015) definierar fyra kunskapsformer, fakta, förståelse, färdighet och förtrogenhet. Här är det värt att notera att Skolverket anger ett något skiftande kunskapsuppdrag för gymnasiet jämfört med grundskolan.

Formuleringen om kunskapens olika former är densamma i läroplanerna för båda skolformerna.

infographics-174x240
Free infographics from Pixabay.com

 

“Kunskap är inget entydigt begrepp. Kunskap kommer till uttryck i olika former – såsom fakta, förståelse, färdighet och förtrogenhet – som förutsätter och samspelar med varandra” (Skolverket, 2011, s. 8; Skolverket, 2015, s. 10).

Men där grundskolans läroplan poängterar ett balanserat lärande och helhet och harmonisk utveckling samt “ett lärande och en utveckling där olika kunskapsformer är delar av en helhet” (Skolverket, 2015, s.10), fokuserar gymnasiets läroplan på att kunskapsutveckling är beroende av samband, överblick, sammanhang och reflektion och att “eleverna ska få möjlighet att reflektera över sina erfarenheter och tillämpa sina kunskaper ” (Skolverket, 2011, s.8).

Gymnasiets läroplan har därmed ett tydligt inskrivet fokus på metakognition i kunskapsuppdraget.


Källor:

Skolverket.se

Skolverket (2011). Läroplan, examensmål och gymnasiegemensamma ämnen för gymnasieskola 2011. Stockholm: Skolverket.

Skolverket (2015). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011, reviderad 2015. Stockholm: Skolverket.

Läroplanerna är under revidering med skrivningar om digital kompetens.

 

A President’s Address

Posts with the same theme

Theme ‘Visions’

An introduction to langugage ideology and power

A President’s Address

Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and power

The assignment “A President’s Address”

1) A President’s Address

Start with watching and listening to President Obama’s inauguration speech (21 minutes)

After listening read the speech as FUll text

Look up unfamiliar vocabulary to make sure you understand the message in this speech.

The full text with key vocabulary translated into Swedish can be found on pages 9-14 in the textbook Viewpoints 3 (accessable through smakprov.se).  There are vocabulary exercises on (pp. 16-18) in Viewpoints 3.

2) Analyse and interpret (work together in groups of 2-4 students)

  • Would the speech have been different if given by a politican in your country? How ? Try to find at least three points where this speech could have been different.
  • “The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms” The three marked expressions in this quote are examples of metaphors. Why are metaphors used, do you think. What associations (connotations) do these metaphors carry?
  • For more questions see page 15 in the textbook Viewpoints 3

3)  Write a speech to Parliament.

  • You should write your speech and then record your spoken delivery of the speech.
  • The speech should be adapted to the intended audience (which is the Parliament in your country)
  • Your task is to write write a speech on the challenges in the job market for the young generations.
  • The speech should have a thesis, two or three  arguments and one counter argument.
  • You should also include at least one rhetorical device (see the links below)
  • The assignment is adapted from the textbook Viewpoints 3 see page 19 (writing task 1).

Useful links


Related posts for the theme ‘Visions’ Presidential Speeches

  1. An introuduction to language, ideology and power
  2. Complete instructions for the theme ‘Visions’
  3. A President’s address

See the instructions for the complete work for this theme Content _English 7_Presidential Speeches or embedded .


Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and power

Discussion – rhetorics and power

2-3 students in each discussion group
Scope: 5-7 minutes


Preparation: Watch/read the inaugural speeches delivered by Barack Obama and by Donal Trump.

  1. Barack Obama ”A Presidents’ Address” pages 9-14 in Viewpoints 3 – (accessable through smakprov.se)
  2. Obama delivers first inaugural address. President Barack Obama takes the oath of office and delivers his inaugural address from the steps of the Capitol
  3. Full Text: President Donald Trump’s Inaugural Address
  4. President Donald Trump’s Inaugural Address (Full Speech) | NBC News

For each speech find/identify…

  • Metaphorical language – give examples and explain what these metaphors usually mean.
  • Theses & antitheses – give examples and explain
  • Quotes – Do the speakers use quotations? Give examples and find out who they are quoting.

 


THEN Discuss:

  • Metaphorical language – Use the metaphors you have identified to discuss. Why do you think these metaphors are used?
  • Theses & antitheses – Use the theses/antitheses you have identified to discuss. What impact does use of these theses/antitheses have on the speakers message?
  • Quotes – Use the quotes you have identified to discuss. Give examples of quotes you have identified and dicuss the presidents’ choice of quote. Why do you think a specific quote is used. How does it affect the speakers massage?
  • Compare how the Obama and Trump use different rhetorical devises and how this affects their respective messages?
  • What evidence of ideologies can you find in their speeches? Give examples and motivate.
  • Where and how can you see power in effect in the language use of Obama and Trump respectively? Support your discussion with examples.

Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and powerWorksheet for discussion (extract from the complete instructions), embedded to the left or as pdf to download English 7_Presidental Speeches_Discussion_20171415297898_stock_save-pdf

 

 

 

 


Posts on this theme

Theme ‘Visions’

An introduction to langugage ideology and power

A President’s Address

Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and power

Theme ‘Visions’

Worksheets,

1) Complete lesson plan and complete instructions

Content _English 7_Presidential Speeches1415297898_stock_save-pdf

2) Essential vocabulary

Discourse- power and ideologies_Essential vocabulary

3) Worksheet for discussion (extract from the complete instructions)

English 7_Presidential Speeches_Discussion_20171415297898_stock_save-pdf


VISIONS part 1 Discussion rhetorics and power

Lecture:
Discourse- power and ideologies in language use (Henrika Florén)

(See post An introuduction to language, ideology and power)

Speeches:

  • Inaugural Address by President Barack Obama
  • Inaugural Address by President Donal Trump

(See post A President’s Address)

Texts:
Viewpoints 3 (accessable through smakprov.se)
NBC

Assignments:
1) List of concepts from “Discourse- power and ideologies in language use”

2) Argumentative text & speech – Speech to the Swedish Parliament

3) Discussion focused on rhetorical devices and the use of ideology and power in two presidential speeches


1. ASSIGNMENTS

Concepts from Discourse – power and ideologies in language use

First watch/listen to the lecture “Discourse – power and ideologies in language use”.

Then in writing shortly define your understanding of the concepts
concept
powerDiscourse - power and ideologies. Essential vocabulary
ideology
discourse
…and any vocabulary you encounter which is relevant for your understanding of the message

You should write 50-100 words for each concept. Define and explain how you think, not just a definition but explain how YOU understand the use of a concept such as power, or ideology. (For any vocabulary you chose, a definition is enough). This will be the beginning of your own list of vocabulary, concepts and ideas. This should be a living document that you will work on continuously during the course.

Look up the words the document Discourse- power and ideologies_Essential vocabulary

(See post An introuduction to language, ideology and power)


2. Speech to the Swedish Parliament

(See post A President’s Address)

Viewpoints 3 textbook:

Imagine that you have been asked to give a speech to the Swedish Parliament about the challenges young people face in contemporary society. Argue for one key measure that you think the government should take in order to improve young people’s prospects on the job market. Make sure to include a thesis, two or there arguments and at least one counter-argument. You should also use one or two rhetorical devices.

There is a model text on pages 196-197 in Viewpoints 3 , and see page 206 for a list of rhetorical devices.

List of Sources:
Use at least one but not more than three outside sources and include a source list in your manuscript.

You should give your sources in APA format. You can use the citation machine to help you with the format. You can also look at the list of sources at the back of the document with instructions embedded above. They are all listed in APA format.

Please submit both your written manuscript (PDF format) AND your recorded speech (mp4 format)


3. Discussion – rhetorics and power

(See post Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and powerPresidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and power

2-3 students in each discussion group
Scope: 5-7 minutes
Preparation: Watch/read the inaugural speeches delivered by Barack Obama and by Donal Trump.

Barack Obama ”A President’s Address” (pp. 9-14 in Viewpoints 3)

Obama delivers first inaugural address. President Barack Obama takes the oath of office and delivers his inaugural address from the steps of the Capitol

Full Text: President Donald Trump’s Inaugural Address

President Donald Trump’s Inaugural Address (Full Speech) | NBC News https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThtRvBUBpQ4

For each speech find/identify…

  • Metaphorical language – give examples and explain what these metaphors usually mean.
  • Theses & antitheses – give examples and explain
  • Quotes – Do the speakers use quotations? Give examples and find out who they are quoting.

THEN Discuss:

  • Metaphorical language – Use the metaphors you have identified to discuss. Why do you think these metaphors are used?
  • Theses & antitheses – Use the theses/antitheses you have identified to discuss. What impact does use of these theses/antitheses have on the speakers message?
  • Quotes – Use the quotes you have identified to discuss. Give examples of quotes you have identified and dicuss the presidents’ choice of quote. Why do you think a specific quote is used. How does it affect the speakers massage?
  • Compare how the Obama and Trump use different rhetorical devises and how this affects their respective messages?
  • What evidence of ideologies can you find in their speeches? Give examples and motivate.
  • Where and how can you see power in effect in the language use of Obama and Trump respectively? Support your discussion with examples.

More posts on this theme

An introduction to langugage ideology and power

A President’s Address

Presidential Speeches: Discussion – rhetorics and power